Over 650,000 solid organ transplants have been performed in the United States over the past three decades, and it is estimated that nearly 4 million transplants have been performed worldwide. While there have been considerable advances in organ preservation, surgical techniques, and clinical management over the last two decades, the rates of acute rejection are still significant.
Furthermore, most patients are subjected to potent immunosuppression therapies (ISTs) for the remainder of their lives, and comorbidities from ISTs, such as new onset of diabetes after transplant (NODAT), nephrotoxicity, and liver damage are still major clinical issues. With increases in chronic conditions, including kidney disease and congestive heart failure, waiting lists for donor organs continue to expand above and beyond the pool of available organ donations.
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